- How does NAVIGATION work?
- How to find sponsors
How does NAVIGATION work?
In order to be able to travel from point A to point B, first of all it is essential to know what direction you should move in and for how long or for how many metres, but prior to this one has to accurately determine:
- where you are
- where you are going
To do this, you need a road book, a trip master (ICO/IMO), maps, a compass and a GPS.
The MEANING of Figures
1 minute (‘) = 1 nautical mile (Nm) = 1852 m = 1,852 km
Distance on a map: e.g.: 1/1 000 000
This means that 1 cm on the map represents 10 km.
The bearing is the angle between the axis of the vehicle and the North.
Global Positioning System
Using a GPS doesn’t mean you don’t need to think or to check an itinerary using other media, such as maps and the road book, or to question the information provided!
GPS…Global Positioning System
The development of this navigation equipment was directly linked to space exploration and the competition in this field.
On October 4th 1957, the Soviets launched SPUTNIK-I which emitted the famous « Bip-Bip ». American researchers recorded these signals and realised that there was a delay in their frequency due to the DOPPLER effect. After studying this, astrophysicists found the formula that allowed them to make use of the degradation in the frequency of the « Bip-Bip ». They then turned the problem around: if one knows the exact dimensions of the satellite’s orbit, one can deduce the geographical position of a mobile fitted with adequate radio receivers.
In 1973, the Department of Defense (DoD) decided to develop GPS, a new positioning system (NAVigation System with Time And Ranging – Global Positioning System) with the following improvements :
- Position in 3 Dimensions : Latitude, Longitude and Altitude;
- Considerably improved accuracy;
- The system is separate from the speed of the receiver;
- Permanent, continuous, worldwide coverage.
HOW THE NAVSTAR-GPS WORKS:
3 satellites are needed to obtain a position in 2 Dimensions.
4 satellites are needed to obtain a position in 3 Dimensions.
The user’s (or the receiver’s) movements are based on the measurement of the variation index between the distances measured. It is therefore the DOPPLER effect that is measured as it affects the signals emitted by the satellites.
This means that if the vehicle is at a halt:
The is no INDICATION of the BEARING
or it is completely wrong.
This specificity occurs on all GPS receivers. The minimum speed for obtaining a valid bearing is 0.2 knots, i.e. 370 metres per hour.
To obtain a position in 2 Dimensions (Latitude and Longitude),
at least 3 satellites are needed.
This means once the GPS is switched on, one has to wait at least:
3 x 30 s = 1 min 30 s
before a VALID position is displayed on the screen
whatever brand of GPS is used.
OPERATIONAL POSSIBILITIES OF GPS RECEIVERS:
There are more than 50 GPS receivers on the market and before making such an important purchase, it is a good idea to take a general look at the operational possibilities of the devices, such as:
A – the number of waypoints...
Without being over-impressed by the number quoted, it is an advantage for the GPS receiver to have A LARGE NUMBER OF WAYPOINTS because this allows for greater flexibility in “manufacturing” an itinerary, in particular for land travel. Indeed, depending on the difficulty of the terrain, the itinerary can be marked with waypoints that can be closer together or further apart.
B – the number of itineraries...
Certain GPS units also offer the possibility of creating parallel routes or completely different directions which the user is completely free to choose. All this depends on the total number of waypoints available: in no event can the equipment’s operational possibilities (number of memories) be exceeded.
C - Set Up or Initialisation...
This function allows one to establish the receiver’s initial settings by selecting certain essential reference parameters. The 2 main parameters are as follows:
- Measurement units...
- NM = Nautical Mile = approximately 1 852 metres;
- SM = Statute Mile = 1 609 mètres;
- KM = Kilometre. It is preferable to use this unit to have measurements coherent with the mileage in kilometres and/or the TRIPMASTER or TERRATRIP
- Reference North...
Most GPS units allow the choice between two Norths:
- agnetic North. Thanks to the fact that all the magnetic possibilities in the world have been memorised by all satellites and that these are automatically taken into account, magnetic directions can be obtained (bearings, plottings).
- True North. This allows for a rapid verification of the road book or any route on a map since the directions are TRUE. The use of true north has the advantage of allowing for TRUE directions indicated by the GPS (itineraries and/or plottings) to be transferred directly to maps without having to use the famous conversion formula.
A road book is a collection of notes that indicates changes in direction, hazards, bearings to follow and WPs… These notes are made by the organiser during his reconnaissance of the course and they must be followed to the letter by competitors. The road book for the following day is issued by the organiser at the overnight camp.
It comes in the form of a booklet (pages bound at the top) for cars or in a roll (pages glued one after the other) for motorcycles. Each page in the road book comprises several lines (5 or 6) divided into three columns: mileage, direction and observations.
Page de Road Book
In the mileage column, the total number of kilometres is shown (distance covered since the start of the course or since the last re-set) and the partial mileage (distance between two boxes in the road book). The distances shown are measured in kilometres.
A drawing (a diagram) in the direction column indicates any hazards or changes in direction. A dot shows the position of the vehicle in relation to the diagram (in general this is also the mileage marker) and an arrow shows the direction to be taken. A road is shown as two parallel lines; a track is shown as a thick line and off-road is shown as a short dotted line.
The observation column is used for comments, bearings or GPS coordinates. Several abbreviations are used in this column: DSS (Departure point for Special Stage), CP (Checkpoint),TDSPP (Straight on along the main track), MVS (Bad), HP (Off road), NBX (Numerous), PP// (parallel tracks)... Not easy to begin with!
Before setting off on a special stage it is essential that the road book is properly prepared : check the number of pages and partial distances, the list of any modifications, the colour coding and proof-reading.
This preparation must be carried out in the evening, just after the briefing.
Checking the number of pages ensures you don’t have a nasty surprise in the middle of a special stage: it occasionally happens that pages are missing, the photocopy is not clear or they are upside-down. If you find a defect in your road book, ask for another one from race headquarters!
Markers, partial mileage calculations and part of the layout are done by computer: mistakes in calculating partial distances are very rare; it is not compulsory to check all the partial distances.
An “opening car”, which is 2 or 3 days ahead of the ride, checks the road book and carries out any last-minute alterations which are passed on
These alterations are displayed at the same time as the road book is distributed and they are explained during the briefing. It is essential to note all the modifications: it sometimes happens that sections of the road book are completely re-worked following a storm, a ford bursting its banks, works…
to the race headquarters.
The TripMaster is a re-adjustable mileage meter that can be calibrated. A tripmaster comprises an electronic box, one or two screens (also called displays), a keyboard (to enter data), a re-set button (switch controlled by foot, from the handlebars or manually) and a mileage captor (also known as a probe).
The box houses the electronic apparatus, the screen(s) and the tripmaster controls. The electronic parts are responsible for converting the signals emitted by the probe into mileage data and displaying them on the Tripmaster screen.
The mileage probe...
The mileage probe sends electric impulses to the tripmaster ; these impulses are converted into distances after the calibration phase.
How to fin sponsors
HOW TO FIN SPONSORS FOR THE RALLY HEROES LEGEND 2012 ?
There is no secret recipe but some advices can always help.
Before setting off in an active search for sponsors,
it is important to define your project clearly by answering the following questions:
►What is my project ?
• Why am I taking part in the Heroes Legend?
• What are my motivations?
• What are my objectives?
• What are my assets in achieving those objectives?
• What resources do I need to achieve this?
►What is my budget ?
It is now important to detail the various cost in order to have a clear idea of your expenses. (Car or moto preparation – Registration– Trip – Visas and passports…) After this stage, you must have answers to the following four questions:
• What is my budget?
• How should I present it to my potential partners/sponsors?
• What are my available funds?
• How much should I ask for from my potential sponsors?
►Who are my potential partners/sponsors ?
Your potential sponsors must be targeted : better to count on your relational, personal, professional or regional fabric rather than “major sponsors” who may be less inclined to support you. Make a list of your potential partners and characterise them:
• What do they do?
• Why would they be likely to help me?
• What specific arguments should I put forward?
• What funds do they have available?
• Which companies should I see as a priority?
►My pitch ? How to sell it ?
“Do not make mistakes in what you say or who you target”. There is no point in talking about your potential sporting achievements if you are taking part in your first rally!
So, assess what you say and in particular your media exposure: amateurs will be the subject of one-off reports, they are frequently mentioned in the local and regional media but do not promise the 8 o’clock news or a national daily sports newspaper!
When you have answered to those questions, you have to prepare a personalised dossier to present your project. This presentation must be clear, concise, persuasive and imaginative; it must make them dream of the rally but also convince them of your personal qualities.
☼You need to highlight your special features, your motivation:
• What is original about your entry?
• Why are you passionate about motor sports (and cross country rallies in particular)?
• What previous experience do you have?
Stress your nationality and your region! Identify potential media spin-off: media statistics can help you identify press, radio or even TV spin-off in your region.
Regional media are frequently looking for a potted history of amateur competitors; so do not hesitate to contact them and suggest an interview, your potential sponsors will only be more impressed
☼Present your arguments to justify sponsorship:
• To give out a good image of the company at local, regional or national level thanks to media spin-off. The company’s name (and/or one of its brands) is associated with your entry and the adventure of the rally.
• To change or strengthen the company’s image internally. To advertise the company’s main values, the directors can use event sponsorship to motivate employees and/or associate the company with values such as courage, surpassing oneself,
competition, human adventure, … which characterise the Dakar.
☼To build a relationship with their suppliers/customers.
Sponsorship may be a way for one of your suppliers/customers to build strong links before or after the conclusion of a partnership.
• To involve your sponsors indirectly in the adventure. Everyone who is interested in motor or extreme sports will want to go once to Dakar… These fans, potential sponsors, will be all the more inclined to help you
in this challenge if they can live the adventure by proxy.
• Propose them to follow you during the event thanks to the category Bivouac Bivouac, they can enjoy nice roads and meet you at the bivouac every night.
• To enable the partner company to enjoy tax relief. Depending on the country, sponsorship offers tax breaks. Consider putting forward a small sales pitch to demonstrate these tax breaks according to the legislation in your country.
☼Highlight the benefits of financial support or support in materiel :
• Visibility of their brand/company name on your vehicle, your clothing, your helmet, your trunk, your assistance vehicles… Make a drawing of the available places on your clothes, vehicle.
• A free trip on a rest day or on arrival: for the most generous sponsors, a day at the rally is a weighty argument for those who want to taste the atmosphere of the Dakar!
• Event organisation: exhibiting the vehicle before or after the rally, or a photo exhibition…
☼Finally, very important to keep good relations with your sponsor …
Keep them up to date with your exploits during/after the rally. During the event they can follow you live every day thanks to the tracking system and our website www.heroeslegend.com. There is also every day, classifications, pictures of the day and news about the stage.
Give them a DVD, or a detailed press review, or a photo album to thank them.
How to get to the start ?
2 possibilities :
1) The organization will take your vehicle to the start in Dakhla (south Morocco, airport
offering regular air connections ) and you fly in via Casablanca, Agadir or Las Palmas.
There are several collection points in Europe:
- Montauban. France
- London, England
- Raamsdonksmeer, Holland
- Prague, Czeck Republic.
2) If you want to ride or drive all the way, it is a two day drive from Tangiers to Dakhla
(highway to Agadir then a very good tarmac road to the start). There will be a convoy of
organization vehicles leaving from Algeciras (Spain) on October 6th. You are welcome to
travel with this convey for the company and help with the boat and custom formalities in
After the rally
- After the finish in Dakar, you have to take your vehicle to the port the following day. Return
flights should be booked to leave that evening at the earliest.
- For riders who need their bikes returned urgently for another event, there will be an express
service to France arriving on October 30th at the earliest. Contact us for details.
Transport of material during the rally
- We propose a service for the transport of your material, wheels or tires, material box and
also your personal luggage (including tent and sleeping bag).
- This material will be transported by a truck of the organization which will be present on all
the bivouacs with light, electricity and a basic workshop
Download the "Transport" form